Battery Types and Technologies

Batteries are classified in two classes as automotive and industrial. Starter batteries are most commonly used automotive batteries. Starter batteries are classified in two types as closed and open system batteries. Closed system batteries are actually maintenance-free batteries. They are called as maintenance-free batteries because they do not require any pure water addition throughout the lifetime. Open system batteries require periodic maintenance by plugs over the lifetime. Therefore, user or authorized service must periodically check the pure water level and electronic level of the battery.
Starter Batteries
Starter batteries feed all the required electrical system of vehicle during parking, except giving of the first start energy from the outside of vehicle. At the same time, it performs balancing required because of the energy system requirement created by alternator after starting to the vehicle. In this scope, starter batteries are the products related to ignition starter and charging system.

Traction Batteries
These batteries are used on traction i.e. moving vehicles; they are especially on forklifts, pallet stackers, conveyors etc. The unit cell has 2 volts of energy, according to customer specific requirements all cells are made ready by connecting in series and obtaining total voltage and ampere per hour. There are various sizes and grades of battery cells starting from 120 A hours to 1550 A hours. Lifetime of the traction batteries is counted as 1500 saykina. Saykina refers charge – discharge circle in one day. If the user charges once per day, approximately lifetime of the battery is 4 year, of course maintenance period is very important here, especially the maintenance period of the traction batteries is very important. It is possible to increase the lifetime if water loss and discharge records of some relevant cells are arranged time to time.  

Stationary Batteries
Stationery batteries are the batteries used in static plants. The usage area is telephone applications, energy plants, dams etc.  It is used as auxiliary batteries for these applications. In case of a power outage, these batteries are activated and fed up the system up to its capacity. These cells - each with 2 volts of energy from 100 A per hour up to 3000 A per hours – are connected with serial connection and they provide required total energy.
VRLA Batteries
The name of VRLA Batteries comes from the valve system that provides high ratio of the gases during charging and discharging inside battery. These batteries allow more gas output compared to aqueous type batteries. In this way, it minimizes to water loss of battery and provides minimum need of ventilation where it is kept. VRL batteries are especially used in caravans, golf vehicles, floor cleaning machines, telecommunication systems, renewable energy systems, wheelchairs, mobile shop and marine applications and they are classified in two groups as AGM and GEL. Internal structure of AGM batteries is different from aqueous batteries. Liquid electrolyte inside of AFM battery serves as separator and impregnated with highly porous glass fiber. Battery plates and these separators are placed in the battery cell in a special way which allows it to occupy minimum space. In this way, unit volume of the AGM battery requires less space than aqueous batteries. The biggest advantage of the ACM batteries is being chargeable with aqueous battery method. These batteries have high cycle life and have up to four times higher deep discharge cycle.
Gel Batteries
GEL batteries are the batteries used in deep discharging applications, they do not need any addition of purified water during the lifetime, for this reason this type of batteries are classified on maintenance-free battery class. Unlike aqueous charged battery, they have deep discharge level. We can discharge approximately 75% of these types of batteries. Also, the chemical structure is not damaged during charging.

Electric Vehicle Batteries
Electric vehicles are divided into four groups: start stop, half hybrid, full hybrid and full electrical. Full electrical vehicles, are moved via electric engines which fed by the battery group. These vehicles do not emit carbon dioxide emission in the environment.  They must be charged electrically with certain intervals depending on their range.  Batteries are the most important component of electric vehicles. Capacity of the battery determines the range of the vehicle and different batteries are developed with different technologies according to the need of range and other electrical consumptions in the vehicle. In electrical vehicle group other battery technologies such as lithium ion and nickel metal hydride are used other than lead-acid technology.   
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